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'RENEWABLE ENERGY IN TURKEY, EU SCOPE , GERMANY PERSPECTIVES & INTERVIEW' with Prof._Dr._Eberhard_Waffenschmidt

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In line with World Energy Scenarios l 2016 [i]by World Energy Council Since 1970, the world has seen rapid growth in energy demand, mainly satisfied by fossil fuels. The future will be different. Disruptive trends are emerging that will create a fundamentally new world for the energy industry, characterized by lower population growth, radical new technologies, greater environmental challenges, and a shift in economic and geopolitical power. These underlying drivers will re-shape the economics of energy. We call this uncertain journey into the new world of energy – The Grand Transition. e World Energy Council has explored the likely futures and outcomes for the Grand Transition. According to the phenomenal rise of solar and wind energy will continue at an unparalleled rate and create both new opportunities and challenges for energy systems. On the basis of report by International Energy Agency Tracking Clean Energy Progress: 2017 examines the progress of a variety of clean energy technologies towards interim 2°C scenario targets in 2025, more effort inevitability is emphasized Recent trends Renewable power capacity additions broke another record in 2016, with 160 GW of capacity additions. Renewable electricity generation grew an estimated 6%, representing over half of global power generation growth. .Recommendation for 2017 mainly focused on accelerating growth of renewable electricity generation through policy improvements focused on both system-friendly deployment and technology development.

  

H.Çiğdem Yorgancıoğlu 

http://www.cigdemyorgancioglu.org     https://boun.academia.edu/CigdemYorgancoglu

Cologne Institute for Renewable Energy) at TH-Köln (Cologne University of Applied Science),

RENEWABLE ENERGY IN TURKEY AND EU PERSPECTIVES

In line with    World Energy Scenarios l 2016 [i]by World Energy Council Since 1970, the world has seen rapid growth in energy demand, mainly satisfied by fossil fuels. The future will be different. Disruptive trends are emerging that will create a fundamentally new world for the energy industry, characterized by lower population growth, radical new technologies, greater environmental challenges, and a shift in economic and geopolitical power. These underlying drivers will re-shape the economics of energy. We call this uncertain journey into the new world of energy – The Grand Transition. e World Energy Council has explored the likely futures and outcomes for the Grand Transition.   According to the phenomenal rise of solar and wind energy will continue at an unparalleled rate and create both new opportunities and challenges for energy systems.
On the basis of  report by International   Energy Agency  Tracking Clean Energy Progress: 2017 examines the progress of a variety of clean energy technologies towards interim 2°C scenario targets in 2025, more effort inevitability is emphasized Recent trends Renewable power capacity additions broke another record in 2016, with 160 GW of capacity additions. Renewable electricity generation grew an estimated 6%, representing over half of global power generation growth. .Recommendation for 2017 mainly focused on accelerating growth of renewable electricity generation through policy improvements focused on both system-friendly deployment and technology development.[ii]

According to World Economic Forum Global Energy Architecture Performance Index Report 2017 global power markets are transforming in favor of sustainable infrastructure. The share of solar in world power generation has almost doubled every two years since 2000, and every four years for wind. With each doubling, the cost of solar falls 24% and that of wind, 19% (3). These trends suggest a permanent shift in the energy mix of the future, marked by a decline in coal consumption, the rising importance of natural gas and renewables[iii]

 

In 2008, the EU put together a framework for renewable energy based on political objectives and the development of new technologies. This allowed the renewable energy sector to prove its ability to protect our environment by cutting emissions, exploiting local energy sources, and stimulating world-class, high-tech industries.[iv]

In November 2016, the Paris Agreement on climate change came into force – a landmark moment for the international community committed to collectively accelerating the transition to a clean-energy economy. The adoption of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Sustainable Development Goals also signaled renewed emphasis on the need for affordable, clean energy.

As renewable energy which  plays  a prominent role in any sustainable and cost-effective resolution to climate change, ensuring  maximum use of renewable energy resources in sustainable and efficient ways is  one of the, main priorities of Turkey’s energy policy

Therefore

 

RE, Renewable Energy sector in Turkey in accordance with the EU policies is highly encouraged. With continued interest from investors, the renewable energy sector is developing. Once the necessary technical connections and the legal infrastructure, new opportunities such as “green” energy commerce has a potential to be developed. [v]

 

RE, Renewable Energy sector in Turkey in accordance with the EU policies is highly encouraged. With continued interest from investors, the renewable energy sector is developing. Once the necessary technical connections and the legal infrastructure, new opportunities such as “green” energy commerce have a potential to be developed. [vi]

 

“Law No. 5346 on Utilization of Renewable Energy Resources for the Purpose of Generating Electricity” came into force in 2005, aiming to enhance and support the use of renewable energy sources in Turkey in line with free market principles and conditions. The law numbered 6094 which came into force on January 8, 2011 developed incentives for the use of renewable energy resources.

In addition, “5627 Energy Efficiency Law,” enacted in 2007 also includes provisions envisioning incentives for electricity generation from renewable energy resources. Within this scope, a floor price has been set for the market price of electricity generated from renewable energy resources. Very small scale generation plants using renewable sources and micro-co-generation plants have been exempted from obligations for receiving a license and establishing a company.

In the “Electricity Market and Security of Supply Strategy Paper”, [OC1] approved by the High Planning Council on May 18, 2009, the following renewable energy resource goals have been set for the year 2023:

  • 30% share of renewable resources in electricity generation
  • Hydropower potential which can be technically and economically utilized will be used for     electricity generation.
  • Wind potential energy to reach a capacity of 20.000 MW
  • Geothermal energy to reach a capacity of 600 MW
  • Setting up the necessary arrangements for the promotion of solar and other renewable energy resources

 

Reducing natural gas usage below the level of 30% in electricity production as a result of measures taken for the promotion of the usage of indigenous and renewable energy sources. 

 

Also, “National Renewable Energy Action Plan”, which was published on 9 February 2015, has characteristics of a roadmap for rigorous planning and efficient development of renewable energy until 2023. The Plan was prepared in accordance with 2009/28/EC Directive and focuses on supporting energy generation and consumption from renewable energy resources. 

Republic of Turkey   Ministry of EU Affairs , MINISTRY / Organization / Directorate of Sectoral Policies / Chapter 15 - Energy[vii] 

In line with the 2015-2019 strategic plan prepared by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of the Republic of Turkey, targets set by Turkey regarding renewable energy production are stated as 10.000 MW in 2019 and 3.000 MW in terms of wind-based installed power. These targets are equivalent to about twice the installed capacity of the wind energy and about four times the installed capacity of the solar energy facility, considering the 2016 events.

I n 2016, Turkey's energy imports fell 28.2 percent compared to the previous year, according to the Turkish Statistical Institute. Turkey’s total electricity generation in 2016 was 269.8 billion kilowatt-hours, of which 131.8 billion kilowatt-hours, or almost half, came from domestic and renewable energy sources. The share of natural gas in electricity production was 89.14 billion kilowatt-hours, which meant its share in total electricity generation in 2016 was 33 percent, down from 37.8 percent in 2015.

 

In a ceremony on February 22, 2017, marking the 15th anniversary of the foundation of the Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EMRA), Minister of Energy Berat Albayrak stated that Turkey, a country that currently spends USD 50 billion on energy and mineral imports every year, may become an energy exporter in the next 10 years. Having recalled the importance attached to local and renewable resources, he underlined that 2016 was a record year with around 49 percent of Turkey’s electricity generated from local and renewable resources. “In the next 10 years, we should increase the share of domestic resources in electricity generation to at least two-thirds. We need to move this ratio to over 50 percent this year. We will work together, shoulder to shoulder. From now on, we will look for more resources, implement regulations, and open the way for investors, being supportive for a win-win model. We will install nuclear plants as well as local-coal fired ones. We need to develop resources with richer calorific values. Turkey spends USD 50 billion on imports every year; however, it will start paying less”, he added.[viii]

RENEWABLE ENERGY IN GERMANY

In 2000, Germany embarked on an “energy transformation” to have the bulk of its energy supplied by renewable power sources by 2050. As part of this, Germans invested heavily in wind and solar power, encouraged by a generous “feed-in tariff” that guaranteed prices and access for any renewable energy fed into the nation’s power grid. In effect, this guaranteed renewable energy producers a selling price for their power, often at above-market rates.

Germany, as a major industrialization, has validated its outstanding success in the expansion of solar and wind energy that it can develop, test and successively swap the existing energy supply system. These initial successes have to be further expanded and bolstered by successes in energy storage technology and network stabilization, in order to achieve 100% success.  Renewable energy technology is becoming competitive through mass production and mass application and can then also replace conventional energy technology globally.

Renewable energies are expected to cover 32 percent of the gross amount of electricity consumed in Germany in 2016. The Centre for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research Baden-Württemberg (ZSW) and the German Association of Energy and Water Industries (BDEW) arrived at this figure in an initial estimate. According to these projections, over 191 billion kWh (kilowatt hours) of electricity will have been generated from sun, wind and other regenerative sources by the end of the year. This would mark a slight increase from the previous year. In 2015, renewable sources delivered just over 187 billion kWh, which is 31.5 percent of the gross amount of electricity consumed that year. The federal government's energy targets call for renewables' share in gross electricity consumption to arrive at 35 percent by 2020.[ix]

 

In Germany, electricity from renewable sources is mainly supported through a market premium scheme. For most installations, the award and the level of the market premium is determined through a tendering scheme. Plants with a capacity of up to 100 kW and other plants in exceptional cases can benefit from a feed-in tariff. The criteria for eligibility and the tariff levels are set out in the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG 2017). The EEG also introduced support schemes to promote flexible biogas plants. Moreover, low interest loans for investments in new plants are provided for by different KfW-Programmes (Renewable Energy Programme –Standard, Programme offshore wind energy, Consortium Loan Energy and Environment, Renewable Energy Programme Premium).[x]

In Germany, plants for the generation of electricity from renewable sources shall be given priority connection to the grid. Furthermore, grid operators are obliged to give priority to electricity from renewable sources when purchasing and transmitting electricity. Moreover, those interested in feeding in electricity may demand that the grid operator expands his grid. These special provisions are set out in the Act on Granting Priority to Renewable Energy Sources (EEG). Further general provisions on energy are stipulated in the Energy Industry Act (EnWG).

IRENEC 2017

The International 100 Percent Renewable Energy Conference

 The International 100 Percent Renewable Energy Conference, organized by EUROSOLAR  held  from 18th May to the 20th May 2017 at the Turkan Saylan Kultur Merkez in Istanbul, Turkey.

Prof. Dr. Tanay Sıdkı Uyar, EUROSOLAR Turkey President, Marmara University Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Section  and Head of Eurosolar Turkey  was the Conference Chair and Prof. Dr. İbrahim Dinçer, University of Ontario Institute of Technology,Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science Canada , Prof. Dr. Friedrich Klinger, INNOWIND Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Germany, Preben Maegard, Senior Vice President, World Council for Renewable Energy and Executive Committee Member, EUROSOLAR , Remigijus Lapinskas, President of World Bioenergy Association,Dr. Wolfgang Palz, EU  were Commission Official (ret.) Conference Co-Chairs

 

Under the vision of high level experts from different countries discussed   recent technical, market and policy aspects connected to integration of renewable and distributed energy resources and smart grids. The pilot projects of Smart Grids in model regions and future scenarios, the major changes in RE policies, legislations and amendments are being implemented. IRENEC created a very rich platform on exchanging ideas and visions in multinational perspectives provided a new visions and friendships may lead a good synergy and cooperation for the sake of future of Renewable Energy.

It was a great forum and platform for meeting and exchanging experiences where the Prominent delegates, panelists, key note speakers and participants shared their opinions and gave up-to date information.

The conference  covered  multiple areas touching RE , like Economic, Environment & Policy Issues for Energy, Renewable Energy System and Technologies, Shifting to 100% Renewable in Sectors, Energy Efficiency and Zero Energy Concept, Local or Global Level Actions in Shifting to 100%, Energy Transition, Macro  Economic  and  Social Impacts of usage of RE , Sustainable Development Economies and RE Project Finance, Integration of Hydrogen Energy Systems into Renewable Energy Systems for Better Design of 100 Renewable Energy 

The Conference trigger my appetite to extend my relevant part concerning the Renewable Energy in Turkey of the Book    (Turkey's place in EU energy policies- H.Çiğdem Yorgancıoğlu - (Page 23-44),   General Coordinator of International Political Academy (UPA) and Assistant Professor of Political Science and Public Administration of Beykent University Assist. Assoc.Dr. Ozan Örmeci and Girne American University(GAU) Faculty of International Relations Department Assoc. Dr. The book "Blue Apple: MAVİ ELMA  Turkey-Europe Relations", which is the editor of Hüseyin Işıksal and contributed by the articles of many UPA (International Political Academy )  authors.

As conference brought  together the leading executives and experts from across the  RE,  I do believe the fact that , the opinions and perspectives  of the guest in an interview will be a valuable asset for those who are interested or acts in Renewable Energy sector ,  One of the guest  of IRENEC 2017 was Prof. Dr. Eberhard Waffenschmidt  Electrical Grids, Cologne Institute for Renewable Energy at TH-Köln ((Cologne University of Applied Science), from Germany delivered  2 key note speeches  and presentation namely ; “the “Analyze of PV Funded Battery System in Germany , Prices Design Choices  and Purchase Motivation” , “The Renewable Energy Act 2017 in Germany” and also and contributed the  Conference Resolutions Sums up Results  which was the last and closing session of IRENEC 2017

 

INTERVIEW

WHO IS ?

Prof. Dr. Eberhard Waffenschmidt

H Cigdem  Yorgancioglu:  How would you introduce yourself to us ?

Eberhard Waffenschmidt: Having studied electrical engineering at the Technical University (RWTH) in Aachen, where I received my PhD degree. Between 1995 and 2011 I was employed at Philips Research. Since 2011 I am Professor for electrical power grids at the Cologne University of Applied Science. My special interest is in identifying and removing obstacles on the way to a 100% use of Renewable Energy. I am chairman of the Society to Promote Solar Energy in Germany (SFV), which aims for an energy supply completely based on renewable energies.

FACTS AND ISSUES WITH TURKEY

H C Yorgancioglu   You have been in Istanbul before in previous  IRENECS as well How was your first  and recent  impressions about İstanbul  respectively and IRENEC 2017 ?

E. Waffenschmidt: Yes, this is the third time

H C Yorgancioglu: How were your first and recent impressions about İstanbul respectively and IRENEC 2017?

E Waffenschmidt: It was difficult for me to follow, because most presentations were in Turkish. The simultaneous translation was good, but by translation always content gets lost, and many of the slides were in Turkish and not translated.

 

H C Yorgancioglu   In Turkey, renewable electricity production is mainly promoted through a guaranteed feed-in tariff. The connection to the grid occurs through a bidding procedure. The available connection regions and points are published by the Turkish Transmission System Operator.  http://www.res-legal.eu/search-by-country/turkey/

How Turkey is perceived by the Energy authorities in Germany in terms of Energy Policies, Renewable targets, action plans and compliance with EU  and  COP 21  ?

E. Waffenschmidt:  I have no insight in EU politics. To the public, it plays no role.

H C Yorgancioglu   Do you think that Turkey and Germany may have some prospects for Strategic Partnership and investment plan  to overcome mutual  challenges in Renewable Sector  and success for  100 % transition to Renewal Energy  can be achieved via such cooperation ?

E Waffenschmidt::Turkey is rich of renewable energy potential and still emerging. I could well imagine collaborations.

FACTS AND ISSUES IN GERMANY

H C Yorgancioglu What are the basic highlights of Project Finance in Solar sector in Germany ?

E Waffenschmidt::None at the moment

H C Yorgancioglu   On the basis of report by International Energy Agency Tracking Clean Energy Progress: 2017,[xi] Solar PV and onshore wind Solar PV and onshore wind electricity generation are expected to grow by 2.5 times and by 1.7 times, respectively, over 2015-20. This growth trend is on track with the 2DS target, providing a solid launching pad for the further 2 times increase in solar PV and 1.7 times increase in onshore wind, respectively, required over the 2020-25 period. Strong capacity growth continued for both solar PV and onshore wind, and record-low contract prices were announced in 2016. The Recommendation for 2017 is implementing system-friendly solar PV and wind deployment and addresses market design challenges to improve grid integration of renewables. How is the recent progresses and situation of Germany for solar PV in this regard?

E Waffenschmidt::Government is limiting investments in PV and onshore wind. Wind investments are halved in 2017 compared to previous years. The current annual investments are not sufficient at all to achieve the climate goals

H C Yorgancioglu:  On the basis of the above mentioned fact and issues how do you see the electrical prices and pricing policy in Germany?

 E Waffenschmidt::Government is exempting industry from contributions to renewable energies. Therefore household customers have to take over that part with their electricity bill. Stock exchange electricity prices have been reduced by about factor two in the last decade, however, this has not been transferred to household customers.

H C Yorgancioglu: Would you tell us about the frame, scope  goals and achievements and importance of Analysis of Funded PV Battery Systems in Germany in terms of prices  design choice and purchase  motivation  presented at IRENEC 2017  Istanbul and how do you evaluate the  energy storage technology and network stabilization, in order to achieve 100% success in renewable energy ?

 E Waffenschmidt: An electric power supply with 100% renewable energies will be based on decentralized small generators and less large power plants. Thus, the decentralized small generators must provide grid control. This contribution presents solutions to replace rotating masses for momentary reserve and providing primary reserve power with fluctuating generation as well as with battery storages.

H C Yorgancioglu   The Solarenergie-Förderverein Deutschland  program  addressing the fact that The individual is powerless against climate change. Here the state is in demand. The common defense overpowering hazards is one of its most important tasks. He can and must create the right conditions for this. The Solarenergie-Förderverein Deutschland (German Solar Energy Association) is an important advocate for the selection of the most efficient environmental conditions. What are the objectives of The Solarenergie-Förderverein Deutschland   and please tell us about your involvement and activities?

 E Waffenschmidt: The SFV aims for an energy supply completely based on renewable energies. For this purpose we do political work and public relations. The daily business of our team is to give consultancy to owners and operators of photovoltaic systems and those persons, who would like to become owners.

The SFV was founded more than 30 years ago in Aachen, Germany, where it is still located. The association mainly contributed to the introduction of the “Aachen Model”, which included a cost matching feed in tariff. This model was taken over by many communities in Germany and was the blue print for the German Renewable Energy Act (EEG). Based on the success the SFV has continuously and consequently promoted a power supply with 100% renewable energies. This has successfully contributed to braking up the paradigm stating conventional energy generation couldn’t be replaced completely. Further information can be found on our website www.sfv.de. Meanwhile we observe that renewable energies are promoted from all sides officially, however in praxis frame conditions deteriorate continuously by legislation. This can be seen by the drastic reduction of annual investments in renewable energies in Germany.

H C Yorgancioglu  On the basis of the declaration of the authorities and news we accesses from the main stream media fossil fuel consumption in Germany  is still too high, especially in the transport sector, and so are greenhouse gas emissions for that same reason. So this is why policymakers, businesses and society will have to make a more determined effort to achieve climate protection targets and successfully transform the entire energy system." What kind of efforts they do perform in this regard? 

 E Waffenschmidt: None

H C Yorgancioglu In 24 September 2017, Germans will cast their votes in the general elections to  determine who will be in charge of the next phase of the country's energy  transition, how are the campaigns in this regard  and what do you  expect and think  about the future of  Renewables and Solar Energy in each  possible scenarios ?

 E Waffenschmidt:  Renewable energies are no issue at all in the media with respect to elections. It will not be decisive for the elections.


[iii] World Economic Forum  Global Energy Architecture Performance Index Report 2017 http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Energy_Architecture_Performance_Index_2017.pdf

[vi] (Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources)

 

  

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