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RELEVANT STUDIES ON ART THERAPY CONCERNING THE CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND RESTORATIVE JUSTICE FOR HE PROSPECTIVE FORENSIC ANALYSIS

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RELEVANT STUDIES ON ART THERAPY CONCERNING THE CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND RESTORATIVE JUSTICE FOR HE PROSPECTIVE FORENSIC ANALYSIS Cigdem Yorgancioglu -Çiğdem Yorgancıoğlu

  

RELEVANT STUDIES ON ART THERAPY CONCERNING THE  CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND RESTORATIVE JUSTICE FOR HE PROSPECTIVE FORENSIC ANALYSIS

 

By Çiğdem Yorgancıoğlu 30 March  2018  02:56 AM

 

 

 

 

Preface

Not  a Poetic Justice we shall talk about , but creative poems may be an underpinning for constructing  Justice In  the Society .

There are studies shows the effectiveness of Art Therapy in Reducing Misery and Depressions in Prison People well as on recidivism. Arts therapies help offenders to improve their health in numerous domains, such as cognitive functioning, emotional development, learning capacity, social skills,  motor skills and quality of life.Arts is a universal language through which we can discover each other and creates inner peace  by smoothing  out of negativity and aggression and by proliferation of self-esteem, which affects the choices, objectives and the capability to tackle  with the  difficulties.

Forensic art therapy is a unique application of art therapy that merges forensic and social science. There are studies reconnoitering the epistemological and ontological keystones of forensic art therapy in the context of several fields including Art therapy with prison inmates. Therapists work with offenders in incarcerated in prisons or secure health care units, or sometimes with patients involved in probation or counselling services, victim support, and additional services and institutions concerned with understanding the causes and effects of crime. Studies show that the experiences attained are frequently challenging and tough, but also very worthwhile for all involved.   How the Arts therapy in any of its forms recurrently has a profound and beneficial effect on the life of an offender. My study aims to observe the positive impact of Arts on offenders via stimulating the safe and effective use of the arts therapies in prisons; developing a dialogue with the prison education and healthcare services; providing guidelines and information on the arts therapies. The field of forensic arts therapies is sophisticated and dynamic field.  My aim is to achieve mindfulness with thought-stimulating and enlightening presentation and key note speech shall cover a capsulated summary of proceedings in this area inspired from   an assortment of presentations given at FATAG[[i] conferences, case studies, research, new developments in theory, and explorations in the peculiarities of forensic arts therapies: art, music, drama, and dance.  My personal poetic mode of expression shall also be presented literally. The presentation shall be concluded with analyze of rhythms, Poems, movies   about the crime, punishment, justice and inner peace.

 

The Scope of the Article

AT (art therapy) constructs a natural environment for teaching, modeling, and using conflict resolution (CR) processes. CR skills can provide tools for creating more amiable and peaceful environments within arts programs and within families, schools, and communities. As with the arts, CR education is approached experientially. One of the most powerful protective factors for youth is a caring, supportive relationship with an adult. Trustful relationships with artists offer youth opportunities to enliven expectations and dreams through art and to communicate their fears, difficulties, problems, bottlenecks and frustrations. CR processes help complex and challenging youth-adult relationships to succeed.

 

 

the American Art Therapy Association (2011) define art therapy (AT)  as the therapeutic use of art  making, within a professional relationship, by  people who experience illness, trauma, or  challenges in living, and by people who seek personal development.  Through creating art and reflecting on the art products and processes,   people can increase awareness of self and others cope with symptoms, stress, and traumatic experiences enhance cognitive abilities and  enjoy the life-affirming pleasures of making  art. AT is an operative and efficient treatment for people experiencing developmental, medical, educational, social or psychological impairment. Art therapists work in a diverse variety of settings  comprising hospitals, psychiatric and  rehabilitation facilities, wellness centers,  forensic institutions, schools, crisis centers,  senior communities, private practice, and other  clinical and community settings Art therapists are trained in both art-making and  counseling Art Therapist  encourage clients to create art and reflect on their art and I help clients learn and use artistic media to express themselves Additionally teach clients how to use art as an emotional container Hence art theraphy  as  a great way to call on the wisdom of the  unconscious mind can change attitudes, increase assertiveness, impact self-development, expand   awareness, stimulate verbal and non-verbal communication, provide insights, release and relieve emotional stress, develop coping strategies.

Art therapy is recognized for its many therapeutic effects on aspects of mental, physical, spiritual, and most notably, emotional well-being., at can increase creativity,confidence,problem solving,determination,focus,non-verbal communication,collaboration,dedication. So the goals of art therapy can be summarized as follows; provide means for strengthening the ego, to provide a cathartic experience, to provide a means to uncover anger, to offer an avenue to reduce guilt, to facilitate impulse control, to help patients/clients use as a new passage  during weakening illness

 

AT, as  an expressive art or art psychology, encourages self-discovery and emotional growth. It is a two-part process, encompassing both the creation of art and the discovery of its meaning. Rooted in Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung's theories of the subconscious and unconscious, art therapy is based on the heart that visual symbols and images are the most accessible and natural form of communication to the human experience. Patients are encouraged to envisage, and then create, the thoughts and emotions that they can't express verbally. The subsequent artwork is then reviewed, and its meaning interpreted by the patient. The analysis of the artwork typically enables a patient to gain some level of insight into their feelings and allows them to work through these issues in a constructive manner. Art therapy is typically practiced in conjunction with individual, group, or family psychotherapy (or verbal therapy). While a therapist may provide critical guidance for these activities, an important feature of effective talk therapy is that the patient/artist, not the therapist, direct the interpretation of their artwork.

Some mental health professionals also view art therapy as an effective diagnostic instrument for the identification of specific types of mental illness or traumatic events. In the late 19th century, French psychiatrists Ambrose Tardieu and Paul-Max Simon both published studies on the visual characteristics of and symbolism in the artwork of the mentally ill. They found that there were recurring themes and visual elements in the drawings of patients with specific types of mental illness. More recently, psychiatric literature has explored common themes and symbols in the artwork of sexual abuse survivors and victims of trauma. Art therapy can be a particularly useful treatment tool for children, who often have limited language and communications skills. By drawing or visually expressing their feelings, even if they can't identify or label the emotions, younger patients have a starting point from which to address these issues. Art therapy is also valuable for adolescents and adults who are unable or unwilling to verbalize thoughts and feelings. Beyond its use in mental health treatment, AT is also applied as an additional complementary therapy to traditional medicine for the treatment of biologically based diseases and conditions. The correlation between mental health and physical health is well documented. Art therapy (AT) has been used in the healing process to relieve stress and develop coping mechanisms, in an effort to treat both the physical and mental needs of the patient.

Although art therapy has traditionally centered on visual mediums (paintings, sculptures, drawings, etc.), some mental healthcare providers have broadened the definition to include music, film, dance, writing, and other artistic genres.

 

Regarding the benefits of AT; First of all AT provides Self-discovery because it triggers an emotional catharsis (a sense of relief and wellbeing through the recognition and acknowledgement of subconscious feelings). Secondly it provides Personal fulfillment. The creation of a tangible reward can build confidence and nurture feelings of self-worth. Personal fulfillment comes from both the creative and the analytical components of the process. Thirdly; Empowerment and Enablement are achieved.  AT can help individuals visually express emotions and fears that they were never able to articulate through conventional means, and give them some sense of control over these feelings. Fourthly, the relaxation and stress relief is attained.. Chronic stress can be harmful to both mind and body. It can weaken and damage the immune system, cause insomnia and depression, and trigger a host of circulatory problems (e.g., high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, and cardiac arrhythmia). When used alone or in combination with other relaxation techniques such as guided imagery, art therapy can be a potent stress reliever. Furthermore; Symptom relief and physical rehabilitation can be achieved. AT can also help individuals cope with pain and promote physiological healing by identifying and working through anger and resentment issues and other emotional stresses.[ii]

 

Art therapy research shows the effectiveness of group art therapy with people  involved in criminal activities. Group art therapy has been correlated with reduced rates of depression and other symptomology, as well behavioral modification plus recidivism rate is decreased.

 

This article predominantly  focus on  some  studies conducted concerning the Conflict  Resolution (CR)  and Dispute  Resolution  under the scope of Art Therapy (AT)  as a preparation for the consecutive Forensic Interpretation of the above stated and below detailed  conducted studies.

 

 

 

 

Circle Justice: A Creative Arts Approach to Conflict Resolution in the Classroom

There is a study t describes a cooperative classroom art therapy intervention in a public elementary school that provided conflict resolution education, social learning, and group cohesion among sixth-grade students. The organizing framework of a "circle justice" group explored the roles of fictional characters in conflict, including group discussion, writing, art-based reflection, and problem solving. Results indicated a culture change in the group that is essential for incorporating conflict resolution in the classroom.[iii]

 

Conflict Resolution and the Arts

At an arts-based delinquency (crime) prevention program in Newport, RI, troubled youth participated in a creative writing workshop. [iv]Their writing, like their lives, tended toward the graphic. Some students felt their creations were being censored when only selected works were published. The issue was triggered by a poem about sexual abuse in which the poet described a fantasy of killing the abuser. "The students themselves were divided about whether the poem should be published, and it's fair to say they all wanted more voice in what was to be published, so we employed the group problem-solving process to come up with a solution," said Kate Hawley, program manager for Stopover Services of Newport. The process resulted in several options satisfactory to the group, including protecting the program's right to choose works for publication while informing students of other publishing opportunities. The arts are a natural forum for teaching, modeling, and using conflict resolution (CR) processes. CR skills can provide tools for creating more peaceable environments within arts programs and within families, schools, and communities. As with the arts, CR education is approached experientially. One of the most powerful protective factors for youth is a caring, supportive relationship with an adult. Trustful relationships with artists offer youth opportunities to enliven hopes and dreams through art and to communicate their fears, problems, and frustrations. CR processes help complex and challenging youth-adult relationships to succeed.

Recognizing the natural affinity between CR education and the arts, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) collaborated in developing the Partnership for Conflict Resolution Education in the Arts. This national leadership initiative is designed to strengthen community-based arts programs for youth at risk of drug abuse and violence through professional development workshops on CR education. Participants include program administrators, artists, and representatives from collaborating organizations and youth and families served by the program.

CR education teaches skills needed for creative problem solving. Effective CR education invites individuals to understand multiple perspectives, identify interests, express points of view, and invent solutions that provide for mutual gain. With understanding and skill, youth can become peacemakers who see conflict as an opportunity for learning and growth.

In 1997, the National Center for Conflict Resolution Education (formerly the Illinois Institute for Dispute Resolution) conducted onsite workshops for nine arts-based youth programs. The training provided through this initiative was designed to teach CR skills and processes to artists, program administrators, and staff; enable arts organizations to infuse CR principles and processes into the design of their youth programs; and strengthen the partnerships between arts organizations and community groups that support youth programs.

The workshops focused primarily on helping program staff and artists develop and use CR skills. It is important that adults demonstrate the ability to resolve conflict appropriately to young people who are learning CR skills.

Methods for integrating CR education into arts programs were also presented. The 2-day training workshops drew heavily on the creative ability of the artists to make use of CR processes and principles in their work with youth. Through interactive, experiential learning activities, participants explored five CR learning modules: understanding conflict, tools for deescalating conflict, tools for resolving conflict, negotiation processes, and group problem-solving processes.

 

Experiences of the participating program sites showed that:

When staff used CR techniques, relationships with youth clients improved. Staff developed a better understanding of conflict and of the reactions and behaviors of youth. Tools for deescalating conflict helped staff deal positively with unacceptable youth behavior.

Many trained program staff reported that negotiation skills were useful with their colleagues and with youth in the program.

Some sites made effective use of the group problem-solving strategy.

Sites that engaged youth in CR activities prior to training improved the impact of the training.

Most programs reported a need for further training on strategies for integrating CR into existing arts programs.

All sites believed that staff training in CR was desirable and helpful. Those with extended and repeated involvement with individual youth (e.g., daily summer program, afterschool program) also believed that providing CR education for youth was viable.

Where host programs included individuals from other community groups, a sense of collegiality developed among program staff and participants. (In Atlanta, for example, administrators from individual Boys & Girls Clubs who participated in the citywide arts program training were motivated to set up arts-based CR education programs within their clubs. Thus, there are now expanded community-based opportunities for youth to develop or practice constructive CR.)

 

The following organizations participated in the Partnership for Conflict Resolution Education in the Arts during 1997: Center for Modern Dance Education, Inc., Community Arts for Children At-Risk Program, Hackensack, NJ. Langston Hughes Cultural Arts Center, Seattle, WA.Chicago Department of Cultural Affairs, Gallery 37 Program, Chicago, IL.Delaware Theatre Company, Wilmington, DE.San Jose Repertory Theatre, Red Ladder Theater Company, San Jose, CA.Stopover Services of Newport County, Inc., ARTS S.O.S., Middletown, RI. Boys & Girls Clubs of Metro Atlanta, Youth Art Connection, Atlanta, GA.Arizona Commission on the Arts, A.P.P.L.E. Corps Program, Phoenix, AZ. Illusion Theater, Minneapolis, MN.

 

 

Art Therapy Connection: Encouraging Troubled Youth to Stay in School and Succeed

There ia another study describes the theory and practice of Art Therapy Connection (ATC), an inner city, yearlong school art therapy program in Chicago, IL, for students identified as being at risk of failing grades 3–12. The ATC program helps to address the mental health needs of students living in impoverished communities and the constant threats they experience on a daily basis. It utilizes an Adlerian art therapy approach, with an emphasis on developing group identity, group cohesion, and cooperation. In turn, a feeling of belonging and trust can be established through social interest so that students feel encouraged to stay in school and succeed. This article explains the program's goals and objectives, typical art directives, and informal outcomes.[v]

 

 

The Effectiveness of Art Therapy: Does it Work?

There is a  review of the literature attempts to identify all published empirical evidence regarding art therapy effectiveness.[vi] The authors attempt to identify any outcome trends associated with study design (single group with no control group, controlled clinical trial, and randomized controlled clinical trial) and to review the overall literature base concerning art therapy effectiveness. The literature search identifies 17 published studies which met the authors' inclusion criteria. Results show that these three types of study designs produce very similar results regarding the positive effects of art therapy, but their conclusions may appear very different. The clarification of study design differences may lend some insight into the perceived effectiveness of art therapy.

 

 

Dancing Solutions to Conflict: Field-Tested Somatic Dance for Peace

The ability to creatively resolve conflict supports excellence in communication and fosters a positive classroom/studio climate. Despite the fact that school violence continues to be high, many schools fail to teach conflict management, social-emotional skills, or community building to all educators. This research-based article shares dance strategies that lead toward peaceable behavior using somatic explorations. Dance is used to identify problems from bullying to gun violence and to find solutions. The author’s Dynamic Embodiments approach to somatic education provides skill-building for stress reduction, enhanced understanding of body cues, and opportunities for the practice of embodied socio-emotional development and conflict resolution. The approach includes a unique progression she has developed to enhance human tolerance, connection, and understanding of issues, feelings, cultures, and values when under duress. Dance improvisation and choreographic methods taught at NYC’s 92Y Dance Education Laboratory are shared.

 

[vii]

 

Art Therapy Strategies to Raise Self-Esteem in Female Juvenile Offenders: A Comparison of Art Psychotherapy and Art as Therapy Approaches

 

This exploratory, quasi-experimental study compared the impact of 2 art therapy approaches on the self-esteem of 27 female juvenile offenders.[viii] Participants took part in an art psychotherapy or an art as therapy group intervention. Self-esteem was measured with a questionnaire designed by the authors and the Harter Adolescent Self-Perception Profile. There were no significant differences on the questionnaire postintervention, with both groups reporting increased feelings of mastery, connection, and self-approval. On Harter's Profile, administered pre and post, both showed an increase in global selfworth. However, the art psychotherapy group showed a significant increase in domains of close friendship and behavioral conduct whereas the art as therapy group did so in the domain of social acceptance. This implies an approach can be selected to build greater trust and self-disclosure or to foster general group cohesion, based on client needs.

 

 

Restorative justice and Art Therapy

Restorative justice is essential in the process of understanding the impact and consequences of behavior. Recent studies indicate that restorative justice approaches are effective in reducing recidivism rates. Utilizing art therapy to visualize these concepts may contribute to the participants’ understanding of the past behavioral experience and deepen the meaning they derive from group therapy.

 

The main goal of restorative justice practices is to allow victims and offenders to repair the damaged relationship between them. Offenders are encouraged to understand that they have caused harm and to take responsibility for their actions. Meanwhile, victims are allowed an opportunity to understand the perspective of the offender and to grant forgiveness.

 

art therapy research shows the effectiveness of group art therapy with those involved in criminal activities. Group art therapy has been correlated with reduced rates of depression and other symptomology, as well behavioral modification (Erickson & Young, 2010; Gussak, 2006; Gussak, 2009a; Gussak, 2009b; Meekums & Daniel, 2011; Smeijsters & Cleven, 2006). Though researchers have spent time investigating the effectiveness of art therapy with criminal populations, no research was found that incorporated art therapy, restorative justice, and early intervention with the adolescent population. In her book, Liebman

 

Overall, the results of this study indicate that restorative justice principles can be incorporated into the structure of group art therapy. However, some limitations were apparent throughout the process. Utilizing an open group format seemed to negatively affect the group dynamics and perceived safety of participants. A closed group format would likely eliminate some of these issues and allow group cohesion to form. Consistency in group members’ attendance would allow participants to continuously build rapport with each other, likely increasing the safety felt within the group on a weekly basis. This may allow participants to feel more able to express themselves openly. In this study, some group members were research participants and some were not. This seemed to limit the analysis of data in several ways. Not having all group members agree to research participation made the data more difficult to gather and analyze. It was important to maintain the confidentiality of non-research participants and due diligence was taken to ensure that none of their information was included in the research study. However, group members and research participants would respond to each other during discussions and would interact in a variety of ways during the group. Though difficult, it was important to remain neutral and not focus on research participants. In future research studies, willingness to participate in the research may need to be a requirement for group membership. The findings of this research study have warranted additional research questions. Future research may include explorations into the efficacy of the curriculum and may include how the curriculum could function in school-based settings. It may also be important to consider the meaning of the ambiguity of offender and victim. Future research should carefully consider the implications of open versus closed groups and keep the cognitive and emotional developmental levels of participants in mind. This research has opened the door for several future studies and has provided valuable information to the art therapy field.

 Participants were informed that they would be asked to discuss the daily topic and their artwork, and respond to each other as they felt comfortable. After a general discussion of how the group would function and group rules, participants were asked to create a name tag as a way of introducing themselves to the group. Participants were asked to write their name on a piece of paper and embellish the letters with things that represent them. Each participant shared briefly. Participants were then introduced to the weekly check in format. Participants were given a piece of paper with a printed rectangle. They were then asked to think about the previous week and consider the emotions that they felt throughout the week. Participants were asked to choose a color, shape, or symbol to represent each emotion. They were asked to fill in the rectangle according to the ratio that each emotion was felt during the week. Participants were then asked to share with the group as little or as much information about their art as they would like. In general, participants discussed feeling overwhelmed and feeling unsure how to handle the emotions. As seen in figure 1, participants filled in the entire rectangle with color. One participant included four emotions and the other noted three emotions from their experiences throughout the week. After participants shared their weekly check in, participants were introduced to the topic for the day, self-monitoring and knowing when to take a time out. Participants were taught relaxation and self-soothing techniques, including deep breathing exercises and other de-escalating techniques. Participants were informed that the subsequent group session may evoke uncomfortable feelings. Participants were instructed to pay attention to their feelings and consider when they may need a time out from the group. Group members were informed that relaxation and self-soothing techniques would be incorporated into meditations at the end of each of the remaining sessions. Session two. During the second session, three total group members were present, of which two were research participants. Group members first were asked to check in using the format introduced in the previous session. After a discussion about their emotions from the previous week, participants were asked to explore behavior. As seen in figure 2, participants filled the rectangle completely with color and again noted three or four emotions from the previous week. Next, participants were introduced to the cognitive behavior triangle (CBT) of thoughts, behaviors, and underlying beliefs. Participants were encouraged to consider a time when someone has acted hostile, verbally or physically towards them. Participants were asked to explore that experience in connection to the CBT triangle by giving examples and discussing how thoughts, behaviors, and underlying beliefs may be connected. After a discussion about what influences behavior, participants were introduced to the art task for the week. Participants were asked to look through a collage box of images to find one that depicts an act of aggression. They were instructed to glue the image down to a piece of paper and include thought bubbles and feeling bubbles to explain how they think the offender and the victim in the picture were thinking and feeling. During the discussion, one participant remarked that the victim must have provoked the offender in some way. Participants also concluded that the offender and the victim could be thinking or feeling similar emotions. One participant chose an image one driver of a car yelling and gesturing at a passing car. As seen in Figure 3, the participant labeled the man in the image as “me” and the second car as “offender”. In the participant’s explanation, he stated that the offender sideswiped the other car. The participant stated that the driver of the car that was hit was reacting by yelling and calling the other driver (offender) names.[ix]

 


[i] The Forensic Arts Therapies Advisory Group (FATAG) is a voluntary organization (since 1990-UK based) which aims to provide support, advice and opportunities for continuing professional development for arts therapists working in forensic or secure settings and trainee arts therapists on clinical placement in forensics. FATAG provides a safe space to share difficult, complex and, at times, painful work not easily shared amongst a non-forensic audience  http://www.fatag.org.uk

[iv] by Marianne Klink & Donna Crawford  - To learn more about the Partnership for Conflict Resolution Education in the Arts or to receive information on training and technical assistance to implement CR education programs, contact the National Center for Conflict Resolution Education, 110 West Main Street, Urbana, IL 61801, 217-384-4118; E-mail: info@nccre.org.-Resource Materials In collaboration with the U.S. Department of Education's Safe and Drug- Free Schools Program, OJJDP has developed a guide to help schools, juvenile justice practitioners, and other youth-serving professionals and policymakers plan and implement CR education programs. For a copy of Conflict Resolution Education: A Guide to Implementing Programs in Schools, Youth-Serving Organizations, and Community and Juvenile Justice Settings, call the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse (JJC), 800-638- 8736. The Guide is also available from OJJDP's home page: www.ojjdp.ncjrs.org. A videotape of the OJJDP satellite teleconference Conflict Resolution for Youth: Programming for Schools, Youth-Serving Organizations, and Community and Juvenile Justice Settings is available from JJC for $17, shipped to a U.S. address.Artists in the Community: Training Artists to Work in Alternative Settings is a handbook designed for anyone developing, conducting, or hosting an arts program in a community setting. The handbook was produced as part of the YouthARTS Development Project, a national demonstration project supported by NEA, and is available from Americans for the Arts, Washington, DC, 202-371-2830 (phone) or 202-371-0424 (fax).

[v] Art Therapy Connection: Encouraging Troubled Youth to Stay in School and Succeed Judy Sutherland PhD, ATR-BC, LCPCAdler School of Psychology, Chicago, IL (Sutherland),Gwenn Waldman MA, ATR-BC, LCPC &Carolyn Collins MA, ATR-BC, LCPC Pages 69-74 | Published online: 22 Apr 2011

[vi] Matthew W. Reynolds PhD,Laura Nabors PhD &Anne Quinlan ATR Pages 207-213 | Published online: 22 Apr 2011

[viii] Liz Hartz MA, ATR &Lynette Thick Pages 70-80 | Published online: 22 Apr 2011

[ix] Spring May 2014 Integrating Restorative Justice Approaches in an Art Therapy Group Jenna Walters Loyola Marymount University, http://digitalcommons.lmu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1124&context=etd

 

  

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